Recombinant DNA is a technology scientists developed that made it possible to insert a human gene into the genetic material of a common bacterium. This “recombinant” micro-organism could now produce the protein encoded by the human gene. Scientists build the human insulin gene in the laboratory. the gene for making insulin is cut from a length of human DNA using restriction enzymes. it is inserted into a plasmid using ligase enzymes. the plasmid goes into a bacterial cell. the transgenic bacterium reproduces, resulting in millions of identical bacteria that produce human insulin. Genetically modified bacteria are used to produce large amounts of proteins for industrial use. Generally the bacteria are grown to a large volume before the gene encoding the protein is activated. The bacteria are then harvested and the desired protein purified from them. The hypoglycaemic potency of genetically engineered insulin is identical to that of purified pork insulin but a weaker effect on counterregulatory hormones has been reported. However, the main advantage of biosynthetic human insulin is its species specificity, which reduces its immunogenicity. Beginning in 1982, biosynthetic "human" insulin has been manufactured for clinical use through genetic engineering techniques using recombinant DNA technology. The host cells are then allowed to grow and reproduce normally, and due to the inserted human DNA, they produce a synthetic version of human insulin.
Disadvantages of being on insulin injections Raises the risk of hypoglycemia. Can promote weight gain. Some people may be uncomfortable about injecting. Could affect employment if you drive for a living.
Insulin was originally derived from the pancreases of cows and pigs. Animal-sourced insulin is made from preparations of beef or pork pancreases, and has been used safely to manage diabetes for many years. With the exception of beef/pork insulin, which is no longer available, they are still being used safely today.
Nowadays, recombinant human insulin is mainly produced either in E. coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Besides, E. coli and yeast, mammalian cells, transgenic animals and plant expression systems are also employed as a host for large-scale production of recombinant insulin [25-28].
The possible benefits of genetic engineering include: More nutritious food. Tastier food. Disease- and drought-resistant plants that require fewer environmental resources (such as water and fertilizer) Less use of pesticides. Increased supply of food with reduced cost and longer shelf life. Faster growing plants and animals.
Crop plants, farm animals, and soil bacteria are some of the more prominent examples of organisms that have been subject to genetic engineering.
Genetic engineering could also create unknown side effects or outcomes. Certain changes in a plant or animal could cause unpredicted allergic reactions in some people which, in its original form, did not occur. Other changes could result into the toxicity of an organism to humans or other organisms.
The manufacturers make the drug and set the price. This is part of the reason why insulin is so expensive. There's no limit to how high the price can be set, and they don't have to disclose how they set it.
Potential Environmental Harms Cross Contamination. Increased Weediness. Gene Transfer to Wild or Weedy Relatives. Change in Herbicide Use Patterns. Squandering of Valuable Pest Susceptibility Genes. Poisoned Wildlife. Creation of New or Worse Viruses.
Genetic engineering is the transfer of DNA from one organism to another using biotechnology. Bacterial cells can be genetically modified so that they have the gene for producing human insulin. As these modified bacteria grow, they produce human insulin. This protein can be purified and supplied to diabetics.
Scientists build the human insulin gene in the laboratory. Then they remove a loop of bacterial DNA known as a plasmid and… insert the human insulin gene into the plasmid. There, the recombinant bacteria use the gene to begin producing human insulin.
The U. S. Food and Drug Administration approves the first genetically engineered drug, Genentech's Humulin, a form of human insulin produced by bacteria. This is the first consumer product developed through modern bioengineering.
Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia).
genetic engineering. The science of altering and cloning genes to produce a new trait in an organism or to make a biological substance, such as a protein or hormone. Genetic engineering mainly involves the creation of recombinant DNA, which is then inserted into the genetic material of a cell or virus.
During the development of the CCAC guidelines on: genetically- engineered animals used in science, some key ethical issues, including animal welfare concerns, were identified: 1) invasiveness of procedures; 2) large numbers of animals required; 3) unanticipated welfare concerns; and 4) how to establish ethical limits