High potency antipsychotic drugs such as haloperidol, fluphenazine, and pimozide cause dystonia more frequently than do low potency drugs such as chlorpromazine and thioridazine. An acute dystonic reaction is characterized by involuntary contractions of muscles of the extremities, face, neck, abdomen, pelvis, or larynx in either sustained or intermittent patterns that lead to abnormal movements or postures. Categories of medications commonly used to treat dystonia include: Anticholinergics. Anticholinergic drugs include Artane® (trihexyphenidyl), Cogentin® (benztropine), and Parsitan® (ethopropazine). Benzodiazepines. Baclofen. Dopaminergic Agents. Tetrabenazine. Other Drugs. Some causes of acquired dystonia include birth injury (including hypoxia, a lack of oxygen to the brain, and neonatal brain hemorrhage), certain infections, reactions to certain drugs, heavy metal or carbon monoxide poisoning, trauma, or stroke. The potential cause of drug induced dystonia is the development of dopamine receptor hypersensitivity after prolonged blockade of these receptors with the use of antipsychotics or anti emetics. In almost all instances, drug induced dystonias are reversible, resolving after the discontinuation of the offending drug.
Most cases of dystonia do not have a specific cause. Dystonia seems to be related to a problem in the basal ganglia. That's the area of the brain that is responsible for initiating muscle contractions. Acquired dystonia is caused by damage to the basal ganglia.
To diagnose dystonia, your doctor will start with a medical history and physical examination. To determine if underlying conditions are causing your symptoms, your doctor might recommend: Blood or urine tests. These tests can reveal signs of toxins or of other conditions. MRI or CT scan. Electromyography (EMG).
Symptoms Begin in a single area, such as your leg, neck or arm. Focal dystonia that begins after age 21 usually starts in the neck, arm or face and tends to remain focal or segmental. Occur during a specific action, such as handwriting. Worsen with stress, fatigue or anxiety. Become more noticeable over time.
It can reveal other underlying problems, which may help identify the cause of Dystonia. Brains with Dystonia disease appear normal under a CT scan; however, the scan may reveal other conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnetic fields and radio-frequency waves to create a detailed image of the brain.
Dystonia. Dystonia is a sustained or repetitive muscle twisting, spasm or cramp that can occur at different times of day and in different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). For example, dystonia is a common early symptom of young-onset Parkinson's.
Dystonia is a very complex, highly variable neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions. Patients with dystonia may experience uncontrollable twisting, repetitive movements or abnormal postures and positions.
Paroxysmal dystonia can occur at any time during the course of MS, but usually is the initial manifestation of demyelinating disease. Paroxysmal dystonia often causes diagnostic difficulties, especially when it is the only or the initial symptom of the disease.
Dystonia is an unpredictable condition. It tends to progress slowly and the severity of a person's symptoms can vary from one day to another. Focal dystonia usually progresses gradually over a period of about five years and then doesn't get any worse. Sometimes, a person's symptoms improve or disappear completely.
High potency antipsychotic drugs such as haloperidol, fluphenazine, and pimozide cause dystonia more frequently than do low potency drugs such as chlorpromazine and thioridazine.
In the vast majority of cases, dystonia is a neurological illness and does not have a mental health cause. Many people with dystonia report that stress and anxiety can aggravate their symptoms of dystonia.
Acute dystonic reactions are a common and distressing complication of antiemetic and antipsychotic drugs. Treatment with intravenous benztropine is safe and produces rapid relief. Patients who have a possible acute dystonic reaction should initially be treated with benztropine.
Although dystonic reactions are rarely life threatening, the adverse effects often cause distress for patients and families. Medical treatment is usually effective to abate acute symptoms. With treatment, motor disturbances resolve within minutes, but they can reoccur over subsequent days.
Is dystonia fatal? In the overwhelming majority of people with dystonia, it does not shorten life expectancy or result in death. Dystonia does occur as a symptom of many degenerative disease, some of which do impact mortality, but the dystonia itself does not shorten life span.
Head twitching and anxiety Anxiety can cause muscle twitches and spasms, too. Typically, the anxiety causes stress and that stress can put tension on muscles and nerves. That can disrupt body signals which causes certain muscles to react with involuntary movement.