Question - What drugs cause dystonic reaction?

Answered by: Jesse Cooper  |  Category: General  |  Last Updated: 16-06-2022  |  Views: 581  |  Total Questions: 14

Neuroleptics (antipsychotics), antiemetics, and antidepressants are the most common causes of drug-induced dystonic reactions. Acute dystonic reactions have been described with every antipsychotic. Alcohol and cocaine use increase risk. Dystonic reactions are reversible extrapyramidal effects that can occur after administration of a neuroleptic drug. Dystonic reactions (ie, dyskinesias) are characterized by intermittent spasmodic or sustained involuntary contractions of muscles in the face, neck, trunk, pelvis, extremities, and even the larynx. Movement disorders are also associated with other medications, such as antiemetics that block central dopamine receptors (i. e., droperidol, metoclopramide, and prochlorperazine), lithium, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), stimulants, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). High potency antipsychotic drugs such as haloperidol, fluphenazine, and pimozide cause dystonia more frequently than do low potency drugs such as chlorpromazine and thioridazine. The potential cause of drug induced dystonia is the development of dopamine receptor hypersensitivity after prolonged blockade of these receptors with the use of antipsychotics or anti emetics. In almost all instances, drug induced dystonias are reversible, resolving after the discontinuation of the offending drug.

Some causes of acquired dystonia include birth injury (including hypoxia, a lack of oxygen to the brain, and neonatal brain hemorrhage), certain infections, reactions to certain drugs, heavy metal or carbon monoxide poisoning, trauma, or stroke.

The most commonly available drugs in the emergency setting for the treatment of acute dystonic reaction are diphenhydramine and benztropine. Symptoms usually improve or resolve dramatically within 10 to 30 minutes of administration of parenteral anticholinergics.

Symptoms of dystonia can range from very mild to severe. Dystonia can affect different body parts, and often the symptoms of dystonia progress through stages. Some early symptoms include: A "dragging leg" Cramping of the foot. Involuntary pulling of the neck. Uncontrollable blinking. Speech difficulties.

In most cases, people develop an acute dystonic reaction resulting after a one-time exposure. Symptoms may include intermittent spasmodic or sustained involuntary contractions of muscles in the face, neck, trunk, pelvis, and extremities.

Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by involuntary and abnormal movements of the jaw, lips and tongue. Typical symptoms include facial grimacing, sticking out the tongue, sucking or fish-like movements of the mouth.

Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures. The movements may resemble a tremor.

To diagnose dystonia, your doctor will start with a medical history and physical examination. To determine if underlying conditions are causing your symptoms, your doctor might recommend: Blood or urine tests. These tests can reveal signs of toxins or of other conditions. MRI or CT scan. Electromyography (EMG).

As muscle relaxants, Baclofen and Tizanidine have been shown to ease the painful muscular spasms and cramps and to be of marked benefit in a significant minority of children with dystonia and also a small minority of adults with focal dystonia.

Categories of medications commonly used to treat dystonia include: Anticholinergics. Anticholinergic drugs include Artane® (trihexyphenidyl), Cogentin® (benztropine), and Parsitan® (ethopropazine). Benzodiazepines. Baclofen. Dopaminergic Agents. Tetrabenazine. Other Drugs.

Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder where uncontrollable and sometimes painful muscle spasms are caused by incorrect signals from the brain. Tardive dystonia is one type of tardive dyskinesia in which the involuntary movements tend to be slow and writhing.

Dystonia. Dystonia is a sustained or repetitive muscle twisting, spasm or cramp that can occur at different times of day and in different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). For example, dystonia is a common early symptom of young-onset Parkinson's.

Interventions: Treatments with diphenhydramine hydrochloride (50 mg intravenously or up to 500 mg/kg orally). Follow-up for up to 20 months. Results: Diphenhydramine therapy was associated with minimal side effects, and it was most effective in treating patients with dystonia who experienced lightning jerks.

Some treatment options may include: adjusting the dose of your levodopa to avoid large fluctuations in the amount of dopamine in your system. taking levodopa in a continuous infusion or an extended release formulation. taking amantadine extended release (Gocovri), which was recently approved to treat dyskinesia.

Treating Movement Disorders In many cases, movement disorders cannot be cured, and the goal of treatment is to minimize symptoms and relieve pain. Some are severe and progressive, impairing your ability to move and speak.