Question - What drugs decrease aqueous humor production?

Answered by: Virginia Young  |  Category: General  |  Last Updated: 16-06-2022  |  Views: 1426  |  Total Questions: 14

Beta Blockers This type of medication works to lower eye (intraocular) pressure by reducing aqueous humor production and decreasing the rate at which the fluid flows into the eye. Drugs such as miotics, adrenergics and prostaglandin agonists can increase aqueous outflow. decreasing aqueous production. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can be used either topically or systemi-cally to reduce aqueous production. Adrenergics, b-blockers and prostaglandin agonists also reduce aqueous production. Examples of beta-blockers used in glaucoma treatment are Timoptic XE (Merck), Istalol (ISTA) and Betoptic S (Alcon). Alpha-adrenergic agonists. These drugs work by decreasing rate of aqueous humor production and can be used alone or in combination with other anti-glaucoma eye drops. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) reduce eye pressure by decreasing the production of intraocular fluid. These are available as eye drops [Trusopt® (dorzolamide), Azopt® (brinzolamide)] as well as pills [Diamox (acetazolamide) and Neptazane® (methazolamide)]. Topical cholinergic agonists such as pilocarpine cause contraction of the longitudinal ciliary muscle, which pulls the scleral spur to tighten the trabecular meshwork, increasing outflow of aqueous humor.

https://www.brightfocus.org/glaucoma/infographic/aqueous-humor-flow-and-function

Aqueous humor is the fluid produced by the eye. Aqueous humor flows from the ciliary body into the anterior chamber, out through a spongy tissue at the front of the eye called the trabecular meshwork and into a drainage canal (dark blue region next to the trabecular meshwork).

http://medcell.med.yale.edu/histology/sensory_systems_lab/flow_aqueous_humor.php

Aqueous humor is produced by the epithelium of the ciliary body. It is secreted into the posterior chamber, from which it flows through the pupil to enter the anterior chamber.

https://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/hypertension.htm

If the ciliary body produces too much aqueous, the pressure in the eye increases, causing ocular hypertension. Inadequate aqueous drainage. If the aqueous drains too slowly from the eye, disrupting the normal balance of production and drainage of the eye's clear fluid, this too will cause high eye pressure.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aqueous_humour

Uveoscleral outflow of aqueous humour can be increased with prostaglandin agonists, while trabecular outflow is increased by M3 agonists. Fluid production can be decreased by beta blockers, alpha2-agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trabecular_meshwork

The trabecular meshwork is an area of tissue in the eye located around the base of the cornea, near the ciliary body, and is responsible for draining the aqueous humor from the eye via the anterior chamber (the chamber on the front of the eye covered by the cornea).

http://www.eyecenter.emory.edu/ophthalmology_terms.htm

Aqueous humor - the clear, watery fluid between the cornea and the front of the vitreous. The aqueous humor bathes and nourishes the lens and maintains pressure within the eye. Since the lens and cornea have no blood supply, the aqueous humor performs the blood's job of carrying nutrients to those structures.

https://visioneyeinstitute.com.au/eyematters/the-vitreous-humour/

The vitreous humour (also known simply as the vitreous) is a clear, colourless fluid that fills the space between the lens and the retina of your eye. 99% of it consists of water and the rest is a mixture of collagen, proteins, salts and sugars.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1351412

Topical beta-blockers reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) by blockade of sympathetic nerve endings in the ciliary epithelium causing a fall in aqueous humour production. Betaxolol has an effect comparable to timolol in lowering IOP, but is less effective in some patients.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/glaucoma/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20372846

These tips may help you control high eye pressure or promote eye health. Eat a healthy diet. Eating a healthy diet can help you maintain your health, but it won't prevent glaucoma from worsening. Exercise safely. Limit your caffeine. Sip fluids frequently. Sleep with your head elevated. Take prescribed medicine.

https://www.glaucoma.org/gleams/high-eye-pressure-and-glaucoma.php

Eye pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Normal eye pressure ranges from 12-22 mm Hg, and eye pressure of greater than 22 mm Hg is considered higher than normal. When the IOP is higher than normal but the person does not show signs of glaucoma, this is referred to as ocular hypertension.

https://www.glaucoma.org.nz/Files/Eye-Exam-Eye-pressure.pdf

Variation in pressure during the day is called diurnal fluctuation. For most normal eyes the pressure is highest in the early morning between 6am and 8am. This daily fluctuation is a hormonal effect on the eye.

https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2370679

Conclusions: : Latanoprost effectively lowers IOP during the day and night with once nightly administration. The IOP reduction can be explained by an increase in uveoscleral outflow. The daytime effects of latanoprost on IOP and uveoscleral outflow are more pronounced than the nighttime effects.

https://www.webmd.com/eye-health/occular-hypertension

Ocular Hypertension Causes. Elevated intraocular pressure is a concern in people with ocular hypertension because it is one of the main risk factors for glaucoma. High pressure inside the eye is caused by an imbalance in the production and drainage of fluid in the eye (aqueous humor).

https://www.glaucoma.org/gleams/eyedrop-techniques-from-dr-andrew-iwach.php

When you put drops in your eye, the drops can become “pumped” into the tear system if you blink. Once in contact with the vascular nasal mucosa, relatively rapid absorption of drugs into the bloodstream can occur. The drops can act as a systemic “bolus” - an infusion of the drug into the bloodstream.